Energy access in global challenge faced by more than 1 billion people. Pakistan, to address the challenge, has developed access strategy of decentralized energy system. In northern hilly areas of country, Hydel resource has been tapped through mini-micro hydro projects. However, the sites are remotes located in hilly terrain, making transportation of machinery a challenging task increasing initial cost. Similarly, loss of head caused by slope in water channels and laborious construction of concrete channel in rigid and sharp rocks further aggravates the situation. This study undertakes case studies of mini-micro Hydel power projects and looks for technically feasible solutions. New design techniques have been revealed relying on piping and pumping of water and construction composition. Concrete channel is replaced by piping structure and water is pumped from intake to fore bay at different angles of inclination and pipe diameters and accordingly the pump power is observed. Due to variation in slope, the net head also varies which has a direct impact on the output power from the plant. The power of pump is subtracted of the power generated by the plant which results in net power. Two actual design examples are considered from a rural area of Pakistan and using statistical analysis techniques the influence on the total output power is analyzed under different scenarios.
Muhammad Asif Tahir Junaid Zafar Ullah Najeeb Ullah “Design Analysis of Mini/Micro Hydro Power Generation Plants in Northern Distric International Journal of Engineering Works Vol. 8 Issue 02 PP. 63-67 February 2021 https://doi.org/10.34259/ijew.21.8026367.
 S. V. Jain and R. N. Patel, "Investigations on pump running in turbine mode: A review of the state-of-the-art," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 30, pp. 841-868, 2014
 G. Case and W. D. Marscher, "Centrifugal pump, mechanical design, analysis and testing," in Proceedings of the 18th International Pump users Symposium, Texas,USA, 2001, pp. 1-16.
 M. De Marchis, C. M. Fontanazza, G. Freni, A. Messineo, B. Milici, E. Napoli, et al.,"Energy Recovery in Water Distribution Networks. Implementation of Pumps as Turbine in a Dynamic Numerical Model," Procedia Engineering, vol. 70, pp. 439-448, 2014.
 A. Gurbuz, "The role of Hydropower in sustainable development," European Water Publication, vol. 13, pp. 63-70, 2006.
 F. Louwinger, "Case study of Ingula and Lima Pumped Storage Schemes," Energize, vol. Generation: Hydropower plants, pp. 40-44, 2008.
 S. Rehman, L. M. Al-Hadhrami, and M. M. Alam, "Pumped hydro energy storage system: A technological review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 44, pp. 586-598, 2015
 GEA, "Manual for the Design of Pipe Systems and Pumps," G. M. Equipment, Ed., ed. Am Industriepark 2-10, 21514 Büchen, 2012, pp. 16-23.
 M. T. Gatte and R. A. Kadhim, "Hydro Power," in Energy Conservation, A. Z. Ahmed, Ed., ed Ministry of Sciences and Technology, Babylon Department, Hilla, Iraq: In Tech, pp. 1-30, 2012.
 A. Kjølle, "Hydropower in Norway. A survey of Mechanical Equipment," pp. 10-184, 2001.
 O. M. H. Rodriguez, R. V. A. Oliemans, Experimental study on oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes. International Journal of Multiphase Flow. 32, 323–343 2006.
 J. J. Allen, M. A. Shockling, G. J. Kunkel, A. J. Smits, Turbulent flow in smooth and rough pipes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 365, pp 699–714 ,2007.
 L. F. Moody, Friction factors for pipe flow. Transaction of the ASME. 66 (2004), pp. 671–684.
 C. P. Jawahar, P. A. Michael, A review on turbines for micro hydro power plant. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72 (2017), pp. 882–887.
 S. Murni, J. Whale, T. Urmee, J. Davis, D. Harries, in Procedia Engineering (Elsevier Ltd, 2012), vol. 49, pp. 189–196.
 J. Hanafi, A. Riman, in Procedia CIRP (Elsevier B.V., 2015), vol. 29, pp. 444–449.
 M. J. Hancock, J. W. M. Bush, Fluid pipes. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 466, pp 285–304.
 G. Luo, Y. Guo, “Rural electrification in China: a policy and institutional analysis,” RenewSustain Energy Rev, pp. 9-23, 2013.
 N. F. Yah, A. N. Oumer, M. S. Idris, Small scale hydro-power as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72 (2017), pp. 228–239.
 V. K. Singh, S. K. Singal, Operation of hydro power plants-a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 69 (2017), pp. 610–619