Due to the fact that conventional resources are gradually decreasing day by day, scientists are working hard to find other sources to produce energy. Solar energy is also used in the form of electricity as it is clean & evergreen accessible energy. Due to high population rate rapidly, electricity demands vary day by day as it is part of our lives. We are using electricity in every aspect of our lives i.e. from houses to offices, industries, transportation, agriculture etc. our country Pakistan is passing through electricity crises from many several years. Average load shading in our country is minimum 8 hrs/day, which is very high number in undeveloped country. Nowadays government of Pakistan is working on other sources of electricity i.e. solar energy & wind energy. Recently with the help of tremendous investment our government (Pakistan) has built a solar park with the capacity of 100MW at Bahawalpur. Most favorable source of electricity is solar energy, which we got through PV cells but these PV cells are expensive and has less efficiency, due to these factors following are obstacles in its use, the cost per kWh of power can be reduced by improving the efficiency of the PV panel system. Economical reflectors, lenses & condenser concentrators can be used. These mirrors focus the light intensity on the entire surface of the panel; it increases the output of the solar cell module because more electrons are generated. However, the temperature of the panel rises due to the increased optical radiation over a longer period of time, which is turn lowers the open circuit voltage (Voc) & decreases its efficiency. For resolving the issue, a cooling system is required to maintain efficiency of P.V panel & P.V system. Sunlight can be converted into electricity via photovoltaic cells, moreover major drawback of photovoltaic PV cells are non economical, less energy conversion, ability, & frequency. Current-Voltage curve of P.V cell depends upon the temperature & amount of electromagnetic energy strikes on the panel. The highest power point on the current-voltage curve of PV cell where system production is high is called maximum power point (MPP). Due to temperature & isolation level, the M.P.P on current-voltage curve changes. To improve the efficiency/working of P.V panel, the efficient & cost effective charge controller with M.P.P.T is formed. This M.P.P.T controller is able to harvest maximum power from solar through irradiation & temperature. It increases the battery life by protecting it from overcharging. In the midst of diverse maximum power point tracker of different approaches, perturb and observe (P&O) approach with some modifications provide excellent results. Physical implementation of proposed technique is done by designing M.P.P.T using DC-DC buck converter and microcontroller. The advantages and the need of such M.P.P.T controller are discussed and the design of M.P.P.T charge controller is checked with P.V charging system. The outcome represent that, this type of M.P.P.T controller performs more controlled functions than any other conventional charge controller.
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