ISSN E 2409-2770
ISSN P 2521-2419

Influence of Biochar Amendment on Soil Water Characteristics and Crop Growth Enhancement Under Salinity Stress

Vol. 4, Issue 4, PP. 49-53, April 2017


Keywords: Agriculture, Biochar, Bulk density, Growth, Irrigation, Saline soil, Yield

Download PDF

Salinity is an important environmental constraint to crop productivity in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Most crop plants, including tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), are sensitive to salinity throughout the ontogeny of the plant. Biochar was used in the present study to improve the available water content (AWC), growth, yield and irrigation water use efficiency of tomato plant under saline soil condition. The biochar was applied at the rates of, 0%, 2% and 4% w/w and expressed as Ck (control), T1 and T2, respectively. The experiment was conducted in the pots inside the greenhouse. The results showed that soil bulk density, field capacity, permanent wilting point, AWC, and soil organic matter were improved significantly as biochar application rate increased. Biochar application also enhanced plant height, stem diameter, plant fresh and dry weights and yield components of tomato plant. It was found that biochar application at T2 treatment in the whole growing period was best to improve tomato plant growth and yield, providing a biochar amendment recommendation for tomato production in field. Moreover, biochar application improved the irrigation water use efficiency. Therefore, biochar amendment could be an effective option to improve saline soil which affected croplands.

  1. Gamareldawla H.D. Agbna: State Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment, College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China; Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 71, Khartoum North, Sudan,, 0086-13913840921
  2. Abubaker B. Ali: National Research Center of Pumps, Water Saving Irrigation, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China, 212013,, 0086-15606102216
  3. Amir K. Bashir: College of Hydrology and Water Recourses, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China,, 0086-15996311013
  4. Farid Eltoum Agricultural Bioenvironmental & Energy Engineering, College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210031,, 0086-15261864924
  5.  Mohamed M. Hassan: College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210031, China,, 0086-13912926529. 

Gamareldawla H.D. Agbna Abubaker B. Ali1 Amir K. Bashir Farid Eltoum Mohamed M. Hassan

  1. [1] Ghassemi F., Jakeman A.J., Nix H.A. Salinisation of Land and Water Resources: Human Causes, Extent Management and Case Studies. UNSW Press, Sydney, Australia and CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1995
  2. [2] Szabolcs, I. Salinization of soils and water and its relation to desertification. Desertification Control Bull, 21: 32–37, 1992
  3. [3] Barrow, C.J. Biochar: potential for countering land degradation and for improving agriculture. Appl Geogr, 34:21–28, 2011
  4. [4] Mankasingh U., Choi P-C., Ragnarsdottir V. Biochar application in a tropical, agricultural region: A plot scale study in Tamil Nadu, India. Appl Geochem, 26:218–221, 2011
  5. [5] Reeves, D.W. The role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil quality in continuous cropping systems. Soil Tillage Res, 43: 131–167, 1997
  6. [6] Powlson D.S., Glendining M.J., Coleman K., Whitmore A.P. Implications for soil properties of removing cereal straw: results from long-term studies. Agron. J, 103: 279-287, 2011
  7. [7] Enders A., Hanley K., Whitman T., Joseph S., Lehmann J. Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance. Bioresour. Technol, 114: 644–653, 2012
  8. [8] Sohi S.P., Krull E., Lopez-Capel E., Bol R. In: Donald, L.S. A Review of Biochar and Its Use and Function in Soil. Adv. Agron. Academic Press, pp. 47–82, 2010
  9. [9] Abiven S., Schmidt M.W.I., Lehmann J. Biochar by design. Nat. Geosci, 7: 326–327, 2014
  10. [10] Jien S.-H., Wang C.-S. Effects of biochar on soil properties and erosion potential in a highly weathered soil. CATENA, 110: 225–233, 2013
  11. [11] Mohan D., Sarswat A., Ok Y.S., Pittman Jr C.U. Organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water with biochar, a renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbent – a critical review. Bioresour. Technol, 160: 191–202, 2014
  12. [12] Samsuri A.W., Sadegh-Zadeh F., Seh-Bardan B.J. Characterization of biochars produced from oil palm and rice husks and their adsorption capacities for heavy metals. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol, 11: 967–976, 2014
  13. [13] Zhang X., Wang H., He L., Lu K., Sarmah A., Li J., Bolan N.S., Pei J., Huang H. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res, 20: 8472–8483, 2013
  14. [14] Hansen V., Hauggaard-Nielsen H., Petersen C.T., Mikkelsen T.N., Müller-Stöver, D. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types. Soil Tillage Res, 161: 1-9, 2016
  15. [15] Bruun E.W., Petersen C.T., Hansen E., Holm J.K., Hauggaard-Nielsen H. Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention. Soil Use Manag, 30: 109–118, 2014
  16. [16] Uzoma K.C., Inoue M., Andry H., Zahoor A., Nishihara E. Influence of biochar application on sandy soil hydraulic properties and nutrient retention. J. Food. Agric. Environ, 9: 1137–1143, 2011
  17. [17] Abel S., Peters A., Trinks S., Schonsky H., Facklam M., Wessolek G. Impact of biochar and hydrochar addition on water retention and water repellency of sandy soil. Geoderma, 202–203: 183–191, 2013
  18. [18] Madsen, H.B. Distribution of spring barley roots in Danish soils of different texture and under different climatic conditions. Plant Soil, 88: 31–43, 1985
  19. [19] Waters D., van Zwieten L., Singh B.P., Downie A., Cowie A.L., Lehmann J. Biochar in soil for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Soil Health Clim Change, 29: 345–368, 2011
  20. [20] Jeffery S., Verheijen F.G.A., van der Velde M., Bastos A.C. A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ, 144:175–187, 2011
  21. [21] Jones D.L., Murphy D.V., Khalid M., Ahmad W., Edwards-Jones G., DeLuca T.H. Short-term biochar-induced increase in soil CO2 release is both biotically and abiotically mediated. Soil Biol Bioch, 43: 1723-1731. 2011
  22. [22] Lehmann J., Rillig M. C., Thies J., Masiello C. A., Hockaday W. C., Crowley D. Biochar effects on soil biota–a review. Soil Biol Bioch, 43: 1812-1836, 2011
  23. [23] Tan, K.H. Soil sampling, preparation, and analysis. CRC press, 2005
  24. [24] Nelson DW., Sommers L.E., Sparks D.L., Page A.L., Helmke P.A., Loeppert R.H., Soltanpour P.N., Tabatabai M.A., Johnston C.T., Sumner M.E. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3-chemical methods, pp. 961–1010, 1996
  25. [25] López Camelo A.F., Gómez P.A. Comparison of color indexes for tomato ripening. Hortic. Brasil, 22: 534-537, 2004
  26. [26] Fischer, S.D. MSTAT-C statistical package. Michigan State University, USA, 1990
  27. [27] Atkinson C. J., Fitzgerald J. D., Hipps N. A. Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: a review. Plant and Soil, 337: 1-18, 2010
  28. [28] Laird D. A., Fleming P., Davis D.D., Horton R., Wang B., Karlen D.L. (). Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma, 158: 443-449, 2010
  29. [29] Novak JM., Lima I., Xing B., Gaskin J.W., Steiner C., Das K.C., Ahmedna M., Rehrah D., Watts DW., Busscher W.J., Schomberg H. Characterization of designer biochar produced at different temperatures and their effects on a loamy sand. Annals Environ Sci, 2:195-206, 2009
  30. [30] Hammer E.C., Forstreuter M., Rillig M.C., Kohler J. Biochar increases arbuscular mycorrhizal plant growth enhancement and ameliorates salinity stress. Appl Soil Ecol, 96:114-121, 2015