Call for Paper 25 September, 2023. Please submit your manuscript via online system or email at

ISSN E 2409-2770
ISSN P 2521-2419

Investigating PI & PID Controllers for DFIG Installed at Micro Hydro Turbine

Jibran Ullah Khan, Imran Haseeb, Muhammad Nazeer

Vol. 8, Issue 08, PP. 204-216, August 2021


Keywords: PI, PID, Controllers, DFIG, MHPP, Micro Hydro, Turbine

Download PDF

The power extracted from the water i-e hydropower is one of the clean and economical source for the generation of power. The flow of water does not remain constant throughout the year so we have to build large storage tanks i-e dams to store water for power generation. But building these large dams have limited this source of energy. Consequently, the trend is going to change by building small hydropower plants. There is no availability of storage of water for producing power then mostly small hydro power plants are built there which are also called as run off river plants. The flow of water vary throughout the year resulting in inconsistent generation of there is a need of variable speed operation that can operate at different operating point to achieve maximum efficiency. So for varying speed operation the one of the famous operating system that is doubly fed induction generator can be used to achieve desired results. In this work the DFIG in a MHPP’s is studied, there steady state and dynamic models are discussed. The 3 phase voltages and currents are transformed into 2 phase for ease in calculation by using Clark and park transformation. Then doubly fed induction generator has to operate at the required references which are reactive power, active power and also for speed. And eventually the model of vector control of doubly fed induction generator is achieved. The main objective of developing the model of doubly fed induction generator is to manage the two powers (i-e reactive and active power). The whole simulation should be carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. In this model of doubly fed induction generator we are using two different type of controllers, i-e Proportional integral and Proportional Integral Derivative controllers, to check the efficiency of the model. The results which are then obtained such as the torque, speed, rotor current, voltages on the rotor side as well as Bus voltage, reactive power on the grid side obtained from the two controllers are then compared with each other to see that which controller is giving good efficiency. Therefore, in this research, a predictive controller is proposed to manage the powers i-e active and reactive, of a hydropower plant using doubly fed induction generator.

  1. Jibran Ullah Khan,, Department of Electrical Energy System Engineering, US-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy (US-PCASE), UET Peshawar, Pakistan.
  2. Imran Haseeb,, Department of Electrical Energy System Engineering, US-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy (US-PCASE), UET Peshawar, Pakistan.
  3. Muhammad Nazeer,, Department of Electrical Energy System Engineering, US-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy (US-PCASE), UET Peshawar, Pakistan.

Jibran Ullah Khan Imran Haseeb Muhammad Nazeer “Investigating PI & PID Controllers for DFIG Installed at Micro Hydro Turbine“ International Journal of Engineering Works Vol. 8 Issue 08 PP. 204-216 August 2021

  1. C. Jawahar and P. Michael, “A review on turbines for micro hydro power plant,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 72, pp. 882–887, May 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.133.
  2. P. Tiwari et al., “A Review on Microgrid Based on Hybrid Renewable Energy Sources in South-Asian Perspective,” Technol. Econ. Smart Grids Sustain. Energy, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 10, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s40866-017-0026-5.
  3. S. M. H. Hosseini and A. Rezvani, “Modeling and simulation to optimize direct power control of DFIG in variable-speed pumped-storage power plant using teaching–learning-based optimization technique,” Soft Comput., vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 16895–16915, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s00500-020-04984-8.
  4. M. Fadaeenejad, M. A. M. Radzi, M. Z. A. AbKadir, and H. Hizam, “Assessment of hybrid renewable power sources for rural electrification in Malaysia,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 30, pp. 299–305, 2014, doi:
  5. S. Nababan, E. Muljadi, and F. Blaabjerg, “An overview of power topologies for micro-hydro turbines,” in 2012 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2012, pp. 737–744, doi: 10.1109/PEDG.2012.6254084.
  6. S. Hermann, “Design of a Micro-Hydro Powered Battery Charging System for Rural Village Electrification,” Master Thesis Postgrad. Program. Renew. Energy, no. March, pp. 12–109, 2006.
  7. H. Mahvash, S. A. Taher, M. Rahimi, and M. Shahidehpour, “Enhancement of DFIG performance at high wind speed using fractional order PI controller in pitch compensation loop,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 104, no. April 2018, pp. 259–268, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2018.07.009.
  8. F. Blaabjerg, F. Iov, R. Teodorescu, and Z. Chen, Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems. 2006.
  9. Q. V. Ngo, C. Yi, and T. T. Nguyen, “The fuzzy-PID based-pitch angle controller for small-scale wind turbine,” Int. J. Power Electron. Drive Syst., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 135–142, 2020, doi: 10.11591/ijpeds.v11.i1.pp135-142.
  10. I. Haseeb, A. Basit, and R. Khan, “Designing variable speed small hydro turbine with doubly fed induction generator ( DFIG ),” vol. 4, no. June, pp. 1–10, 2019.
  11. Y. K. Wu and W. H. Yang, “Different Control Strategies on the Rotor Side Converter in DFIG-based Wind Turbines,” Energy Procedia, vol. 100, no. September, pp. 551–555, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2016.10.217.
  12. F. Bonnet, P. E. Vidal, and M. Pietrzak-David, “Dual direct torque control of doubly fed induction machine,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2482–2490, 2007, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2007.900330.
  13. M. M. Alhato and S. Bouallègue, “Thermal exchange optimization based control of a doubly fed induction generator in wind energy conversion systems,” Indones. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1252–1260, 2020, doi: 10.11591/ijeecs.v20.i3.pp1252-1260.
  14. A. K. Gupta, H. Bhushan, and P. Samuel, “Generator Topologies with Power Electronics Converters for a Wind Energy Conversion System : A Review,” Natl. Conf. Recent trends Energy Syst., no. April, pp. 1–6, 2013.
  15. M. A. Al-Gabalawy, N. S. Hosny, and S. A. Hussien, “Cuckoo search algorithm based for tunning both PI and FOPID controllers for the DFIG-Wind energy conversion system,” Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 6319–6329, 2020, doi: 10.11591/ijece.v10i6.pp6319-6329.
  16. R. Pena, R. Cardenas, and G. Asher, “Overview of control systems for the operation of DFIGs in wind energy applications,” IECON Proc. (Industrial Electron. Conf., vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 88–95, 2013, doi: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699116.
  17. G. D. Marques and D. Mesquita E Sousa, “A new sensorless MRAS based on active power calculations for rotor position estimation of a DFIG,” Adv. Power Electron., vol. 2011, 2011, doi: 10.1155/2011/970364.
  18. L. Dewan, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering 667 Advances in Renewable Energy and Sustainable Environment. 2019.
  19. Y. Bekakra and D. Ben Attous, “Sliding mode controls of active and reactive power of a DFIG with MPPT for variable speed wind energy conversion,” Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 2274–2286, 2011, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1330304.
  20. A. B. Ataji, Y. Miura, T. Ise, and H. Tanaka, “Direct Voltage Control with Slip Angle Estimation to Extend the Range of Supported Asymmetric Loads for Stand-Alone DFIG,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 1015–1025, 2016, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2015.2414481.
  21. A. Bektache and B. Boukhezzar, “Nonlinear predictive control of a DFIG-based wind turbine for power capture optimization,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 101, no. April 2017, pp. 92–102, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2018.03.012.
  22. S. V. Dias, W. A. Silva, T. R. F. Neto, L. L. N. Dos Reis, B. C. Torrico, and J. C. T. Campos, “Robust Generalized Predictive Control applied to the mitigation of electromagnetic torque oscillations in a wind energy conversion system based on DFIG,” 2016 IEEE Bienn. Congr. Argentina, ARGENCON 2016, 2016, doi: 10.1109/ARGENCON.2016.7585310.
  23. M. Amer, A. Miloudi, and F. Lakdja, “Optimal DTC control strategy of DFIG using variable gain PI and hysteresis controllers adjusted by PSO algorithm,” Period. Polytech. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 74–86, 2020, doi: 10.3311/PPee.14237.
  24. Y. Song and F. Blaabjerg, “Analysis of the behavior of undamped and unstable high-frequency resonance in a DFIG system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 9105–9116, 2017, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2017.2654919.
  25. E. Tremblay, S. Atayde, and A. Chandra, “Comparative study of control strategies for the doubly fed induction generator in wind energy conversion systems: A DSP-based implementation approach,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 288–299, 2011, doi: 10.1109/TSTE.2011.2113381.
  26. A. Kumar and S. Suhag, “Effect of TCPS, SMES, and DFIG on load frequency control of a multi-area multi-source power system using multi-verse optimized fuzzy-PID controller with derivative filter,” JVC/Journal Vib. Control, vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 5922–5937, 2018, doi: 10.1177/1077546317724968.
  27. B. A. Nasir, “Design considerations of micro-hydro-electric power plant,” Energy Procedia, vol. 50, pp. 19–29, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.06.003.
  28. Y. Xue and N. Tai, “System frequency regulation in doubly fed induction generators,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 977–983, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2012.05.039.
  29. H. Mahvash, S. A. Taher, M. Rahimi, and M. Shahidehpour, “DFIG performance improvement in grid connected mode by using fractional order [PI] controller,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 96, no. July 2017, pp. 398–411, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2017.10.008.
  30. E. Aydin, A. Polat, and L. T. Ergene, “Vector control of DFIG in wind power applications,” 2016 IEEE Int. Conf. Renew. Energy Res. Appl. ICRERA 2016, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 478–483, 2017, doi: 10.1109/ICRERA.2016.7884383.