ISSN E 2409-2770
ISSN P 2521-2419

Synthesis of Non Precious Metals (NPM) Electrocatalysts for Higher ORR Efficiency in Fuel Cell Applications

Vol. 6, Issue 09, PP. 305-309, September 2019


Keywords: Electrocatalysts, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs), Zeolitic Immidizole Frameworks (ZIF), Graphitic Carbon Nitrides, Hydrodynamic methods

Download PDF

Pt-less electrocatalysts for the assistance in Oxygen Reduction Reaction, elucidating at the cathode of PEMFC have been widely researched. To be considered as an alternative this research work focuses two different classes of Non-Precious Group Metals (Non-PGM),carbon base supports and Metal Organic Frameworks have been synthesized and tested for ORR characteristics i.e Cobalt doped Graphitic Carbon Nitrides (Co-C3N4) and Zeolitic Imidazole Framework with iron as a dopant i.e Fe+2. Potentiodynamic  steady state convectively diffusing the reacting material within the electrolyte is employed at varying rpm to attain Linear Sweep Voltammograms at 20 mV.s-1 in 0.1M KOH and 0.1 HCLO4 electrolytes are obtained at 400, 800,1200 and 1600 rpm. Charge transfer number is obtained, showing the rate determining step of the reaction kinetics of transport of ionic species in the Oxygen reduction.

  1. Afaf Ali, , US-Pakistan Centre for Advanced Studies in Energy, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  2. Ihtesham Ahmed, , Department of Energy Systems Engineering, US-Pakistan Centre for Advanced Studies in Energy, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  3. Dr. Saim Saher, , US-Pakistan Centre for Advanced Studies in Energy, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Afaf Ali Ihtesham Ahmed and Dr.Saim Saher Synthesis of Non Precious Metals (NPM) Electrocatalysts for Higher ORR Efficiency in Fuel Cell Applications International Journal of Engineering Works Vol. 6 Issue 09 PP. 305-309 September 2019

 [1]   Tabbi et al, Fuel cells in stationary and portable fuel cell applications.International journal of hydrogen energy.41 (2016)

[2]    Wroblowa H et al, Adsorption and kinetics at platinum electrodes in the presence of oxygen at zero net current. J Electroanal Chem 1967; 15: 139–50.

[3]   Wang Junye. Barriers of scaling-up fuel cells: cost, durability and reliability. Energy 2015;80:509e21

[4]   Jiujun Zhang et al.PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts and Catalyst Layers: fundamentals and
applications. Springer,2008.

[5]   Raza R et al, 2005.Kordesch K, Simader G. Fuel cells and their applications VCH; 1996.

[6]      Parthasarathy A et al, J Electrochem Soc 1992; 139: 2530–7.

[7]  Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap, US drive road map,, 2013

[8]   R. Borup, et al., Scientific Aspects of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability and Degradation">Scientific Aspects of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability and Degradation Chem. Rev.,107, 3904-3951, 2007.

[9]   Raza R et al, Fuel cell technology for sustainable development in Pakistan – An over-view. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 53 (2016) 450–461.

[10]  Damjanovic A, Bockris JO’M. The rate constants for oxygen dissolution on bare and oxide-covered platinum. Electrochim Acta 1966; 11: 376–7.

[11]  Yao Nie, Li Li and Zidong Wei. Recent Advancements of Pt and Pt-free Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Chemical Society Reviews. DOI: 10.1039/x0xx00000x

[12] Kim TK1 et al .Nanoporous metal oxides with tunable and nanocrystalline frameworks via conversion of metal-organic frameworks. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Jun19;135(24):8940-6. doi: 10.1021/ja401869h.

[13]    H. T. Chung et al, Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells. Electrochem. Commun., 2010, 12,1792–1795.

[14]    L. Chong et al, Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity of Catalysts Derived from Co and Co/Zn Methyl‐Imidazolate Frameworks in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells .Chem Electro Chem, 2016, 3, 1541–1545.

[15]    P. Gai et al., Efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of alcohols catalysed by MOF-derived Co catalysts. Mater. Chem. B, 1, 2742-2749, 2013.

[16]   S.Phapan et al, Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes derived from Zn–Fe-ZIF nanospheres and their application as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with in situ generated iron species. Chem. Sci., 4, 2941, 2013

[17]   B. Chen et al, Cobalt sulfide/N,S codoped porous carbon core–shell nanocomposites as superior bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions.Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 20674–20684.

[18]     J. shui et al, Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal–organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network.  10.1073/pnas.1507159112, 2015.

[19]    Chang H et al, Proceedings of the Symposium on Materials for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells. Solid State Ionics 2002; 148: 601–6

[20]   Kim et al, Novel ordered nanoporous graphitic C3N4 as a support for Pt–Ru     anode catalyst in direct methanol fuel cell.J. Mater. Chem. 17 (2007) 1656–1659.

[21]    M.J. Bojdys et al, Ionothermal synthesis of crystalline, condensed, graphitic carbon nitride.Chem. Eur. J. 14 (2008) 8177–8182

[22]    W. Zhang et al, Palladium nanoparticles supported on graphitic carbon nitride-modified reduced graphene oxide as highly efficient catalysts for formic acid and methanol electrooxidation, J. Mater. Chem. A 2 (2014) 19084–19094.

[23]     Chan SH et al, A mathematical model of polymer electrolyte fuel cell with anode CO kinetics. Electrochim Acta 2003;48:1905–19.

[24]     Kazuma Shinozaki et al, Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique. II. Influence of Ink Formulation, Catalyst Layer Uniformity and Thickness. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 162 (12) F1384-F1396 (2015)

[25]   Thacker R, Hoare JP. Sorption of oxygen from solution by noble metals: I. Bright platinum. J Electroanalysis Chem 1971; 30:1–14

[26] Yeager E. Dioxygen electrocatalysis: mechanisms in relation to catalyst structure. J Mol Catalyst 1986;38(1 2):5–25.

[27]  Jiujun Zhang et al. PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts and Catalyst Layers: fundamentals and applications.  Springer,2008.