Alternative fuel use in cement industry has seen a rise in the recent years in lieu of the growing concerns about the growing share of the industry in global green house emissions which stand at 8% of overall carbon dioxide emissions worldwide. Prominent amongst the reasons for this high emission is the use of conventional coal in providing heat requisite for processing in the cement industry. The use of alternative fuel, however, has started a positive downward trend in the emissions of the industry. The use of alternative fuel, most prevalent among which is Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), has a twofold advantage: economic fuel for cement production, and a venue for disposing off the solid waste in the landfills around big cities. This experiment of alternative fuels use in cement industry is largely without any impact assessment on the economy and ecology of the cement manufacturing. Obviously the technical assessment has been performed by the industries themselves in terms of energy contents, the larger impact of these fuels on economy and environment is still unknown or not published. This research undertook the technical analysis of these alternative fuels used in three cement industries in Pakistan comprised of characteristics like calorific value, Sulphur and chlorine contents, carbon emissions accruing from the use of the these fuels. In addition the economics associated with the use of these fuels were also investigated through comparison with economy of the conventional fuels.
The current Climate change issues in Pakistan & Globally is not merely a coincidence rather this has developed and got worse with the passage of time through industrial revolution, more demand of energy and the race to further development among each country. To meet the energy demands, fossil fuels, one of the primary resources of energy are being explored with unprecedented rate worldwide. May it be Land or Sea, desserts or forests, if there is a potential suspected, the Oil exploration firms start their activities. On one side, if this helps to meet the growing energy demands, on the other, more and more effects of such activities are changing the environment. To avoid severe and immediate damages, environmental protection rules and laws are being passed Globally the purpose of which is to make sure such activities are carefully planned and all checks are in place prior to starting the operations to avoid any harmful impact on the eco- system. Various countries have customized these laws as per their environmental visions and established organizations which make sure these laws are implemented and followed. Pakistan, a developing nation, is one of the countries who are in the game of Oil exploration also has set forth such Acts & Laws but the assurance that the Companies are operating under the established Environmental law of the Country has never been completely done. International firms and National entities have their own set of checks in place which try to follow the Federal and Provisional rules. The goals and authority of Provisional environmental protection agencies are defined at policy level but the implementation and monitoring steps have various loop holes which need to be filled. The differences in the working methodology, related to environment, between Government owned firm vs International operators also shows the mindset of the local environmental agencies. The environmental policies need to be updated at Federal and Provisional levels with more implementation and monitoring structure in place.